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Notes Chapter 1 Matter In Our Surroundings CBSE 9th Class Science


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Notes Chapter 1 Matter In Our Surroundings CBSE 9th Class Science

Matter

A matter is something which occupies the space and has mass. A matter is found in five states which are as follows:

  1. earth,
  2. air
  3. sky,
  4. fire,
  5. water

Characteristics of particles of matter:

The following are notable characteristics of matter:

  1. they have spaces among them,
  2. they attract each other,
  3. they move continuously,
  4. their kinetic energy increase by the increase in temperature.

States of matter

Matter can be classified upon following criteria:

  1. energy of particles,
  2. arrangement of particles,
  3. distance between the particles.

The five states of matter are as follows:

  1. Liquid,
  2. Gas,
  3. Plasma,
  4. Solid,
  5. Bose einstein.

Difference between Solid, Gas and Liquid

Solid Gas Liquid
  1. Fixed structure and stable volume,
  2. Solids cannot be compressed,
  3. The distance between particles is very smallest.
  4. Particle are of high density and they do not diffuse.
  5. Force of attraction between the particles is very strong.
  1. No fixed structure and no volume,
  2. Gas can be highly compressed like Cng.
  3. The distance between particles is larger as compared to solids,
  4. The density is lower than that of solids.
  5. Force of attraction is slightly lower than the solids.
  1. No  fixed structure but stable volume,
  2. Liquid matters are almost incompressible,
  3. The distance between particles is largest,
  4. The density of particles is very least as compared to solids and liquids.
  5. Force of attraction is weakest in this state of matter.

Plasma

Plasma is the fourth state of matter and is an ionized gas. It gets affected by the magnetic fields and that is why it is the best conductor of electricity. Being a gas, its volume, and shape is indefinite.

Bose-einstein condensate – BEC

It is the state of matter which arises as a result of cooling of the gas at a very low temperature usually at 0 k. This state was first coined by the Albert einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose. That is why this was names over their invention. In BEC, the molecules are found so close which are not so close even in solids.

 

 

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